Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the liver. It’s commonly caused by a viral infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis. These include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol. Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease that occurs when your body makes antibodies against your liver tissue.

Hepatitis symptoms that are common

You may not have symptoms at first if you have chronic infectious types of hepatitis, such as hepatitis B and C. Symptoms may not appear until the injury has a negative impact on liver function.

Acute hepatitis symptoms arise soon. These are some of them:

  • flu-like symptoms exhaustion
  • abdominal ache black 
  • urine pale stool
  • Yellow skin and eyes, which might be indicators of jaundice
  • loss of appetite unexplained weight loss

Because chronic hepatitis develops slowly, these signs and symptoms may go unnoticed.

Viral hepatitis has five kinds.

Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E are viruses that infect the liver and are categorized as hepatitis. For each kind of virally transmitted hepatitis, a separate virus is responsible.

Hepatitis A is usually an acute, short-term infection, but hepatitis B, C, and D are more likely to develop into a long-term infection. Hepatitis E is typically severe, but it can be very harmful to expectant mothers.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a virus that infects the liver. This kind of hepatitis is most usually spread by eating food or water contaminated with hepatitis A-infected feces.

To prevent this infection, the hepatitis A vaccination is available. Vaccination usually begins between the ages of 12 and 18 months. It’s a two-part vaccination. Adults can also get the hepatitis A vaccination, which can be coupled with the hepatitis B vaccination.

Hepatitis B

 Hepatitis B is spread by coming into touch with infected bodily fluids carrying the hepatitis B virus, such as blood, vaginal secretions, or sperm (HBV). Hepatitis B is spread by injection drug use, having intercourse with an infected partner, and sharing razors with an infected individual.

Antiviral medicines are used to cure chronic hepatitis B. Because it must be sustained for months or years, this type of treatment can be expensive. Vaccination against Hepatitis B is possible. Hepatitis B immunizations for all babies are recommended by the CDCTrusted Source.

Hepatitis C

The virus that causes hepatitis C is called hepatitis C. (HCV). Hepatitis C is spread by sexual intercourse and direct contact with contaminated bodily fluids. In the United States, HCV is one of the most frequent bloodborne viruses. People with chronic hepatitis C are usually treated with a cocktail of antiviral medications. People with chronic hepatitis C who develop cirrhosis (liver scarring) or liver illness may be candidates for a liver transplant.

Hepatitis C vaccine is currently unavailable.

Hepatitis D 

Hepatitis D is a devastating liver illness caused by the hepatitis D virus, which is also known as delta hepatitis (HDV). Direct contact with infectious blood is required to contract HDV. Hepatitis D is an uncommon kind of hepatitis that only happens when hepatitis B infection is present. Without the presence of hepatitis B, the hepatitis D virus cannot grow.

Hepatitis D can be avoided by having the hepatitis B vaccine, as infection with hepatitis B is required for the development of hepatitis D.

Hepatitis E 

The hepatitis E virus causes hepatitis E, which is a waterborne illness (HEV). Hepatitis E is usually seen in places with poor sanitation, and it is caused by swallowing feces contaminated water.

There are currently no particular medicinal treatments for hepatitis E. When dealing with this sort of sickness, it’s common advice to get enough rest, drink lots of fluids, eat lots of nutritious foods, and stay away from alcohol.

Hepatitis prevention tips

Hygienic Conditions

One of the most important ways to avoid catching hepatitis A and E is to maintain adequate hygiene. If you’re visiting a developing nation, stay away from:

  • local water
  • raw or undercooked shrimp and oysters from nearby waters raw fruits and vegetables

Hepatitis B, C, and D can be avoided by:

  • sharing drug needles is prohibited
  • razors should not be shared
  • not using someone else’s toothbrush
  • not touching blood that has been spilt
  • Sexual intercourse and close sexual contact can potentially spread hepatitis B and C.
  • Using condoms and dental dams during safe sex can help reduce the chance of infection.


Vaccines are an important part of the hepatitis prevention strategy. Hepatitis A and B vaccines are available. Hepatitis C vaccinations are being developed by experts right now. Hepatitis E immunization is accessible in China, but not in the US.

Hepatitis is diagnosed in a variety of ways.

Examination of the patient’s history and physical condition

To diagnose hepatitis, your doctor will review your medical history to see whether you have any risk factors for infectious or noninfectious hepatitis.

Your doctor may gently push down on your abdomen during a physical examination to check for discomfort or soreness. Your doctor may perform a physical examination to determine whether your liver is enlarged. During the checkup, your doctor will notice whether your skin or eyes are yellow.

Tests of the liver’s function

Blood samples are used in liver function tests to measure how well your liver is working. Abnormal findings from these tests might be the first warning of a problem, especially if you don’t have any symptoms of liver disease on a physical exam.

Ultrasound is a type of technology that uses sound

An abdominal ultrasound creates a picture of the organs in your belly using ultrasound waves. This test lets your doctor examine your liver and surrounding organs up close. It has the potential to reveal:

  • you have fluid in your abdomen
  • injury or expansion of the liver
  • gallbladder abnormalities liver tumours
  • The pancreas might pop up on you at any time.

A biopsy of the liver is performed

A liver biopsy is an invasive operation in which a sample of tissue from your liver is taken. It is done with a needle via your skin and does not require surgery. An ultrasound is commonly used to advise your doctor while obtaining a biopsy sample.


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